In the teaching and learning of sports and games, it is difficult for one teacher to observe the performance and give feedback to each and every student. This is especially true in a larger class size of forty students or more. Without timely feedback and assessment, students would be unaware of their own strengths and weaknesses, reducing the effectiveness of teaching and learning, as well as capping the potential for improvement.
This sharing aims to show how a hit map could be used in badminton lessons to facilitate peer assessment and feedback. The recorded hit map would keep track of students’ activity in various parts of the badminton court. Student observers would then use this data to give feedback to their peers to help them to improve their game.
Data from analytical tools can provide students with information on their weak spots as well as how to optimise their performances in game (Drazan, Loya, Horne, & Eglash, 2017). It also provides students an opportunity to be exposed to data analytics in a field that they are intrinsically motivated to improve. This could be a start of their journey towards scientific inquiry (Maltese, Melki, & Wiebke, 2014). An example of such an analytical tool is the shooting and defensive efficiency map presented in the Sloan Sports Analytics Conference in 2015 (Franks, Miller, Bornn, & Kirk, 2015). Similar tools are used extensively in professional sports like the National Basketball Association (NBA) and this exposure could instil a sense of pride in students’ performances, encouraging them to do their best.
Recording students’ performances and results and having a student observer to give feedback falls under the sport education model. These records help to define standards amongst peers and facilitate for easy comparison. They also aid in quantitative goal setting (Siedentop, 1998). It is also shown that such peer feedback would promote the development of students’ social and communication skills while encouraging collaborative learning (Wallhead & O’sullivan, 2005).
Students were each given a hit map worksheet to record their activities in the badminton court. This worksheet would be passed to their selected peer observer while they play a half court singles game. The instructions are as follows:
The markings on the hit map will continue to overlap until the two players complete an eleven point game.
Example of hit map worksheet given to student
Explaining how the hit map works to a Secondary 2 Normal (Technical) class
Example of students’ work on the hit map
After the playing data is collected, observers would be guided to refer to the hit map to analyse where did their players return the shuttle successfully and unsuccessfully. They are also instructed to refer to the opponents’ hit map. This will reflect where their players sent the shuttle to. They can then use these data to craft meaningful feedback to improve their players’ game.
Fiona (left) and Jia Yin (right) giving feedback to each other
Students’ responses to guiding questions on the worksheet
More examples of students’ responses
An analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of implementing this hit map was done.
Some students’ thoughts about the hit map were captured in an interview conducted after the lesson.
Benjamin (2T2) and Syahirah (2T2) sharing some of their thoughts on the hit map
Drazen, J. F., Loya, A. K., Horne, B. D., & Eglash, R. (2017). From Sports to Science: Using Basketball Analytics to Broaden the Appeal of Math and Science Among Youth. MIT SLOAN Sports Analytics Conference.
Franks, A., Miller, A., Bornn, L., & Goldsberry, K. (2015). Counterpoints: Advanced Defensive Metrics for NBA Basketball. MIT SLOAN Sports Analytics Conference.
Maltese, A.V., Melki, C.S., & Wiebke, H.L. (2014). The nature of experiences responsible for the generation and maintenance of interest in STEM. Science Education, 98(6), 937-962.
Siedentop, D. (1998). What is sport education and how does it work? Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 69(4), 18-20.
Wallhead, T., & O’sullivan, M. (2005). Sport education: Physical education for the new millennium? Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy, 10(2), 181-210.