Yishun Secondary School



In the teaching and learning of sports and games, it is difficult for one teacher to observe the performance and give feedback to each and every student. This is especially true in a larger class size of forty students or more. Without timely feedback and assessment, students would be unaware of their own strengths and weaknesses, reducing the effectiveness of teaching and learning, as well as capping the potential for improvement.

This sharing aims to show how a hit map could be used in badminton lessons to facilitate peer assessment and feedback. The recorded hit map would keep track of students’ activity in various parts of the badminton court. Student observers would then use this data to give feedback to their peers to help them to improve their game.


Data from analytical tools can provide students with information on their weak spots as well as how to optimise their performances in game (Drazan, Loya, Horne, & Eglash, 2017). It also provides students an opportunity to be exposed to data analytics in a field that they are intrinsically motivated to improve. This could be a start of their journey towards scientific inquiry (Maltese, Melki, & Wiebke, 2014). An example of such an analytical tool is the shooting and defensive efficiency map presented in the Sloan Sports Analytics Conference in 2015 (Franks, Miller, Bornn, & Kirk, 2015). Similar tools are used extensively in professional sports like the National Basketball Association (NBA) and this exposure could instil a sense of pride in students’ performances, encouraging them to do their best. 

Recording students’ performances and results and having a student observer to give feedback falls under the sport education model. These records help to define standards amongst peers and facilitate for easy comparison. They also aid in quantitative goal setting (Siedentop, 1998). It is also shown that such peer feedback would promote the development of students’ social and communication skills while encouraging collaborative learning (Wallhead & O’sullivan, 2005).


Students were each given a hit map worksheet to record their activities in the badminton court. This worksheet would be passed to their selected peer observer while they play a half court singles game. The instructions are as follows:

  1. Mark an ‘O’ on the hit map when the player returns the shuttle successfully.
  2. Mark an ‘X’ on the hit map when the player returns the shuttle unsuccessfully.

The markings on the hit map will continue to overlap until the two players complete an eleven point game.

Example of hit map worksheet given to student

Explaining how the hit map works to a Secondary 2 Normal (Technical) class

Example of students’ work on the hit map 

After the playing data is collected, observers would be guided to refer to the hit map to analyse where did their players return the shuttle successfully and unsuccessfully. They are also instructed to refer to the opponents’ hit map. This will reflect where their players sent the shuttle to. They can then use these data to craft meaningful feedback to improve their players’ game. 

Fiona (left) and Jia Yin (right) giving feedback to each other  

Students’ responses to guiding questions on the worksheet


More examples of students’ responses


An analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of implementing this hit map was done.

Strengths Weaknesses
  1. Student engagement
    There are typically four badminton courts in an indoor sports hall (ISH) which can hold eight half court badminton singles games. This would mean sixteen students being engaged in physical activity. In a typical class of forty, there would be other students waiting on the fringes for their turn. This hit map could provide an avenue to engage students mentally and encourage them to constantly think and strategise about the game.
  2. Peer coaching
    Students could be more inclined to impart advice when they are engaged as a peer observer than as an opponent. Furthermore, students are receptive to feedback if the peer observer is a skilful badminton player and a friend. 
  3. Self-assessment 
    Students could see for themselves exactly where they lost their points by looking at their hit map. This could spur them on to minimise mistakes made in game. Furthermore, they could analyse where they sent their shuttles to by looking at their opponent’s hit map. They could then calibrate their strokes to send the shuttles towards the edges of the court to increase their chances of winning the point.
  1. Students’ inability to generate quality feedback
    Low progressing students who are acting as the peer observers may not have the keen eye to spot their player’s strengths and weaknesses. Furthermore, peer observers may lack the articulation skills to deliver their ideas across. This could be assisted by the teacher providing guiding questions to shape the peer observer’s analysis of the game.
  2. Peer observers’ short attention span
    Peer observers may get distracted and turn off task when they are recording the activities of the game. This would in turn paint an inaccurate picture on the hit map, rendering it ineffective for analysis. These students need to be constantly reminded by the teacher who is moving around the lesson venue.
  3. Students unwilling to perform the job of a peer observer
    Students are often eager to play badminton but less so to perform the unfamiliar job of a peer observer. This needs to be adequately addressed by the teacher to stress that all parties would get to try out both activities.

Student Reflections

Some students’ thoughts about the hit map were captured in an interview conducted after the lesson.

Benjamin (2T2) and Syahirah (2T2) sharing some of their thoughts on the hit map  

Hit Map Peer Feedback Worksheet


Drazen, J. F., Loya, A. K., Horne, B. D., & Eglash, R. (2017). From Sports to Science: Using Basketball Analytics to Broaden the Appeal of Math and Science Among Youth. MIT SLOAN Sports Analytics Conference.

Franks, A., Miller, A., Bornn, L., & Goldsberry, K. (2015). Counterpoints: Advanced Defensive Metrics for NBA Basketball. MIT SLOAN Sports Analytics Conference.

Maltese, A.V., Melki, C.S., & Wiebke, H.L. (2014). The nature of experiences responsible for the generation and maintenance of interest in STEM. Science Education98(6), 937-962. 

Siedentop, D. (1998). What is sport education and how does it work? Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance69(4), 18-20. 

Wallhead, T., & O’sullivan, M. (2005). Sport education: Physical education for the new millennium? Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy10(2), 181-210.