Feedback 360 at CHIJ OLN goes beyond the norm where feedback is just shared with the student on her performance. At CHIJ OLN, students give feedback to one another, to the teacher, teachers to one another and school. The school does it via checklists, technology (videos + ipads and VEO) and Learning Outcomes, and the PE lessons have improved as a result. Because of all this, the PE programme engages learners by making learning visible to students, teachers and parents.
In order to provide an effective Feedback 360 structure, CHIJ OLN explored the use of various ICT tools and platforms. ICT is needed in PE because the practical nature of PE limits the opportunities for reflective tasks. It is even harder for such opportunities to present itself when there is a lack of tangible evidence of work. Thus, ICT tools can be used as a solution to this problem as it provides a record of students’ work and capture assessment evidence in PE lessons (Lee et al., 2001) to allow for more effective feedback. CHIJ OLN explored the use of mobile devices such as iPads and Apple TV, e-platforms such as Padlet and VEO including video recording tool such as Swivl to strengthen the Feedback 360 structure. While ICT tools are capable of enhancing various interactions in Feedback 360, some interactions are better conducted via a more traditional approach like asking questions for understanding and reciting verbal cues.
We explored 5 different forms of interactions in order to provide a more holistic feedback to the students. They are:
Overview of Feedback 360 for PE
Student to student feedback or more commonly known as Peer Assessment is beneficial to physical education as it allows students to receive immediate feedback regarding their performance despite being in a large group setting. It is a powerful tool to help students learn from each one another, deepen their own knowledge and enable them to develop soft skills that are essential when collaborating with others. This is in-line with MOE’s 21st Century Competencies and its stipulated Student Outcomes. This form of feedback allows students to learn in a safe and non-judgmental environment. It reduces potential student embarrassment or stress to be ‘under the limelight’ as opposed to being evaluated by the teacher (Butler & Hodge, 2001). For peer feedback to be effective, students must be educated on what to look out for (key performance indicators), and how to provide specific and quality feedback to their peers.
In CHIJ OLN, students are taught to capture still images or/and videos of their peers performing various tasks according to the lesson objectives. They utilize platforms such as Padlet to upload what they had captured for everyone in the class. Feedback can then be given and students can take the necessary steps to improve their skills. Apple TV instant review is another tool that is used to share and review their performances. Guided by a checklist, which includes the key learning points, students provide quality feedback to their peers on their performances so that their peers can make the necessary adjustments to improve their skills.
Students using iPad to capture friend’s performance
The importance of teacher to student feedback in a child’s learning development has already been made clear in many research. It has many functions that include reinforcing success, correcting errors, helping to unravel misconceptions, suggesting specific improvements, giving advice for the future, praising, all with different levels of effectiveness (Hattie & Clarke, 2019). In CHIJ OLN, we explored and incorporated the use of ICT into this aspect of Feedback 360 to strengthen the existing tools that are already present.
The most commonly used tool in teacher to student feedback is the use of checklists. In CHIJ OLN, checklist is used for both teacher to student feedback and student to student feedback, as mentioned earlier. The checklist provides students with immediate feedback from the teacher and students can then easily think through their next steps to improve on their performance. In CHIJ OLN, iPads and Apple TV are used to enhance the quality of feedback given to the students. The ability to record and save videos allow multiple replays of the tasks performed. Teachers and students can then analyze the performances together enabling them to refine and improve on their performances. Videos could also be recorded from different angles to allow a clearer assessment of the task performed based on the different angles. The pre-recorded students’ performances allow teachers to make the students’ learning visible. Teachers can showcase examples of how feedback can be given to students by projecting it on the big screen. Through teacher modelling of providing feedback to the class, students will in turn learn to give quality feedback to peers.
Student to teacher feedback provides teachers with more information on the learning process of the students. Teachers can then make informed changes that will be beneficial for students in their learning. Teachers utilize feedback gathered to inform and enhance their teaching approaches. In addition, harnessing this area of feedback adds on to support the relationships among teachers’ self-efficacy, and students’ learning motivation, learning atmosphere and learning satisfaction (Pan, 2014). The student to teacher interaction will also be part of the cycle of supporting students in developing metacognition, self-regulation, self-efficacy, engagement and resilience when learning.
In CHIJ OLN, this aspect of feedback happens at multiple stages throughout the learning process. At the start, students will be sharing with their teacher their level of understanding of the subject area prior to the learning experience. This is achieved by asking the students to either answer subject questions via flipped classroom on the SLS platform. The other approach was using the model of Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO) taxonomy (Biggs & Tang, 2011) to describe the levels of increasing complexity in students’ understanding of subjects.
Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO) Taxonomy Model
We started with a pre-survey to chart the individual Student’s current level of understanding for the subject area to be taught. The results of the pre-survey helps the teacher to understand the class profile, their readiness and thinking levels. Based on the survey findings, there was a good distribution of students found to be in the pre-structural, uni-structural, multi-structural, relational, and extended abstract. This afforded the teacher to adopt a more differentiated approach by customizing the upcoming lessons to bridge the gaps in order for them to attain the learning outcomes.
Sample results of pre poll survey to check level of understanding
Once the teaching process commences, continuous feedback was provided via platforms like Padlet. The quality of comments made by the students to their classmates provides feedback to the Teacher about their learning progress. It allows the Teacher to bridge the gaps in learning by helping them to improve the quality of comments. Once the gaps have been bridged, the student to teacher feedback culminates with the post SOLO survey administered. This post-survey is administered to track students’ growth in the learning continuum. It provides a clear indication of the formative process that students have made. It also enables them to look back and reflect on their learning experience. By looking at the pre-survey results, the performance videos uploaded which are readily available, helps students to visualise and make sense of their learning at the different stages and the progression that they have made.
Sample results of post poll survey to check for improvement
The multi-dimensional feedback from student to teacher trains and leads the students to analyze their performance in the various assigned tasks. With the acquired skill of looking at self and teacher assessment as well as the recorded performances, students can then apply this knowledge to formulate their own strategies for future tasks.
Verifying the impact of one of the interactions of Feedback 360 for PE
Teacher to teacher feedback is a form of professional development for teachers to improve teaching practices and eventually students’ performances. As how peer feedback among students is beneficial, teachers too can benefit from it. Such benefits include an opportunity for teachers to engage in reflective dialogue about their lessons and improvement of classroom practices through sharing of successful and good teaching practices. Teacher to teacher feedback has been done mainly through classroom observations. However, some common problems in carrying out classroom observations are timetabling matters and the tight schedule that PE teachers have resulting in their inability to provide feedback to their peers.
Thus, a solution to tackle this problem is through the use of VEO, a video tagging software. VEO allows us to record our PE classes and share them with fellow teachers online, safely and securely. VEO saves teachers precious time as classroom observations can be recorded and feedback can be given through VEO at a more convenient time for the observer(s). Through VEO, the number of observers is limitless as the lesson that has been conducted is available online. VEO is a more effective tool for teacher to teacher feedback as classroom observations are more genuine as there are no observers physically present. The classroom observations are recorded using Swivl, a video recording tool that rotates to follow the movement of the teacher automatically, providing a clear view of the ongoing class.
Screen guide of VEO Platform to aid lesson observation and feedback sharing
Teacher and parent communication is essential as the students’ time is predominantly spent in school and at home. Teachers are regarded as the parent when the students are in school, to be their moral compass and motivator. Communication between teacher and parent includes providing ongoing feedback on the students’ performance in school to further enhance their learning development. When parents are informed and involved in the learning process and development of their children, the students will have the necessary support needed from school and at home. Similar to other subjects, there needs to be a teacher to parent feedback in PE.
Feedback in PE is given to parents after an assessment has been conducted using the Learning Outcomes (LOs) from the PE syllabus. For feedback to be effective, it should be designed to pinpoint a learner’s level of understanding and skill development in order to prepare them for the next steps towards achieving the learning outcomes. In the past, CHIJ OLN used to provide feedback using the more conventional method of grading; A, B, C and D. The grades do not provide details as to how a student is performing in the various aspects of PE. Thus, CHIJ OLN embarked on a more formative form of feedback. Descriptors of ‘Beginning, Developing, Competent and Accomplished’ are used in place of grades. These descriptors are provided for the various aspects of PE, based on the different LOs tested. CHIJ OLN has created an Excel Worksheet for performance grading on the different aspects of PE, i.e.; Gymnastics, Outdoor Education, Games and Sports etc. The grades are then aggregated into a final grading using an internally designed rubrics system. Excel macros are then utilised to publish the descriptors into printable result slips which will then be inserted into the students’ report books.
Sample report book results slip for PE
Feedback 360 has its limitations. The entire process requires additional tools and resources, thus, more time has to be spent on educating the students on the different interactions and also the different ICT platforms used. Teachers would also require more time to prepare the resources before lessons to ensure that curriculum time will not be wasted. In terms of resources, schools that intend to implement Feedback 360 have to ensure ICT tools are readily available for use. This includes purchasing of IPads and full versions of online tools.
While Feedback 360 for PE provides a more complete approach in feedback, improvements can still be made for it to be more effective and efficient. The list of tools that are used are not exhaustive and can improve each aspect of providing feedback between the different groups. Improvements can also be made in exploring more ICT tools to ensure that Feedback 360 can continue to be implemented during Blended Learning or Full Home-Based Learning.
In PE, like the academic subject in schools, students at times require many practices supplemented with their own revision before they can reach mastery of the topic. We may need to further improve this feedback process with the creation of a platform whereby students can revisit their PE lessons anytime they want to, just like how they can refer back to the previously learnt chapters in the textbook.
Feedback 360 for PE is definitely a step forward in enhancing the quality of teaching and eventually the quality of learning. There is a need for continuous optimisation of the five feedback processes to support the ever changing learning process and varied student profile.
|Edwin Njoo Kiat Chongfirstname.lastname@example.org
Biggs, J., & Tang, C (2011). Teaching for quality learning at university: What the student does (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill, Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.
Butler & Hodge (2001).
Hattie, J., & Clarke, S. (2019). Visible learning: Feedback. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.
Lee, M., Whitehead, J., Ntoumanis, N., & Hatzigeorgiadis, H. (2001). Goal orienations as mediators of the influence of values on sporting attitudes in young athletes. In A. Papaioannou, M. Goudas, & Y. Theodorakis (Eds.), In the dawn of a new millennium: 10th World Congress of Sport Psychology (pp. 193-194). Hellas.
Pan, Y.H. (2014). Relationships among teachers’ self-efficacy and students’ motivation, atmosphere, and satisfaction in physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 68-92.